Glossary

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A

Accountability
The requirement that officials answer to stakeholders on the disposal of their powers and duties, act on criticisms or requirements made of them and accept responsibility for failure, incompetence or deceit.

C

Capacity Building/Development
—The process of development that focuses on understanding the obstacles that inhibit individuals, organizations, institutions, and societies from realizing their developmental goals while enhancing the abilities that will allow them to achieve measurable and sustainable results.
Change Management
—The process, tools and techniques to manage changes to achieve the required outcome. It incorporates the organizational tools that can be utilized to help individuals make successful personal transitions resulting in the adoption and realization of change.
Civil Society
—A vital component of governance and decentralization, that is supposed to vigilantly hold those in power accountable and to promote democracy.

D

Decentralization
—A process through which powers, functions, responsibilities and resources are transferred from central to local governments and/or to other decentralized entities, striking a balance between the claims of the periphery and the demands of the centre.
Digital Divide
—Inequality between groups, broadly construed, in terms of access to, use of, or knowledge of information and communication technologies (ICT).

E

Effectiveness
The capacity to realise organisational or individual objectives. Effectiveness requires competence; sensitivity and responsiveness to specific, concrete, human concerns; and the ability to articulate these concerns, formulate goals to address them and develop and implement strategies to realise these goals.
E-Governance
The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between Government-to-Citizens (G2C), Government-to-Business(G2B),Government-to-Government(G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government frame work.
E-Government
The utilization of ICTs and other web-based telecommunication technologies to improve and/or enhance on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery in the public sector.
Empowerment
A social action process that promotes participation of people, organizations, and communities towards the goals of increase individual and community control, political efficacy, improved quality of community life and social justice.
E-Participation Index
Assessment on the quality and usefulness of information and services provided by a country for the purpose of engaging its citizens in public policy making through the use of e-government programs.

G

Governance
—The exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country's affairs at all levels, comprising the mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences.
Government 3.0
A Semantic Web-based government that personalizes and intelligenizes all government services according to the conditions and preferences of each individual.
Green Growth
Growth that is efficient in its use of natural resources, clean in that it minimizes pollution and environmental impacts, and resilient in that it accounts for natural hazards and the role of environmental management and natural capital in preventing physical disasters.

I

Information Network Village(INVIL)
Self-sustainable village communities that are capable of continued growth by creating information network environments and improving the income of residents through e-commerce in agricultural, fishing, and mountain regions usually excluded from information networks.

M

Millenium Development Goals(MDGs)
Eight international development goals that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. The goals are: 1) Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; 2) Achieving universal primary education; 3) Promoting gender equality and empowering women; 4) Reducing child mortality rates; 5) Improving maternal health; 6) Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; 7) Ensuring environmental sustainability; and 8) Developing a global partnership for development.

N

New Public Management
A new paradigm for public management describing public sector reforms which emphasizes output controls, the disaggregation of traditional bureaucratic organizations and the decentralization of management authority, the introduction of market and quasi-market mechanisms, and customer-oriented services.

O

Open Government
—The governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight.

P

Principle of Subsidiarity
The idea that a central authority should have a subsidiary function, performing only those tasks which cannot be performed effectively at a more immediate or local level.
Public Private Partnership
A contractual agreement between a public agency and a private sector entity. Through this agreement, the skills and assets of each sector (public and private) are shared in delivering a service or facility for the use of the general public. In addition to the sharing of resources, each party shares in the risks and rewards potential in the delivery of the service and/or facility.

S

Semantic Web
A next generation, artificial intelligence web technology that enables computers to define, understand and logically deduct the meaning of information, further to help better search of requested information.
Social Integration
—A dynamic and principled process in which societies engage in order to further human development. It represents the attempt not to make people adjust to society, but rather to ensure that society is accepting of all people.
Sustainable Development
—Development that does not exhaust resources for the future generations; the capacity of people and institutions is permanently enhanced; and responsibilities and benefits are broadly shared.

T

Transparency
A principle that allows those affected by administrative decisions, business transactions or charitable work to know not only the basic facts and figures but also the mechanisms and processes.

U

UN E-Government Development Index(EGDI)
A composite indicator measuring the willingness and capacity of public administration to use ICT to deliver public services.
UN E-Government Survey
A systematic assessment of the use of ICT to transform and reform the public sector by enhancing efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability, access to public services and citizen participation in 193 countries.
UN Public Service Awards
—The most prestigious international recognition of excellence in public service. It rewards the creative achievements and contributions of public service institutions that lead to a more effective and responsive public administration in countries worldwide. Through an annual competition, the UN Public Service Awards promotes the role, professionalism and visibility of public service.